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How does Solar Devices work

Various parts of the system - electrical, mechanical & civil
 

  1. Solar Panels - Polycrystalline or MonoCrystalline panels

  2. Solar Inverters - Inverters or PCU (Power Conditioning/Control Unit)

  3. Solar Battery

  4. Solar Structure

  5. Solar Balance of System - Earthing, Lightning Arrestor, Cables, Junction Boxes, Connectors, etc.

1) How does Solar PV Panel work !

Solar panels are designed to absorb the sun rays and generate electricity.  They are also known as PV or photovoltaic modules as they don’t need anything beyond sunlight to produce electricity as DC.  Solar panels, can easily replace fossil fuels that cause unnecessary pollution.  These panels supply clean and renewable energy that comes directly from sun, reduce the carbon footprint, and is not harmful to the environment.  The cost of solar panels has considerably reduced in the past few years.  Panel manufacturers give 25 years of warranty on panels and assure a great performance, not just functionality.

 

An investment in solar panels is very sound as compared to the grid system, it is cheaper and the cost can be recovered in a short time.  In fact, after a certain period of time, if you choose the right installation service, you can actually start earning profit on this investment. 

The Direction & Tilt of the Solar Panel is very important for the maximum efficiency of the solar system, and hence it is directly important for the ROI of the investment.

The solar panels in India should be aligned towards South Direction, as long as it is possible.  This is due to the reason that our country is in the southern hemisphere.  So, when the sun travels, it takes an Elliptical Trajectory going from east to west having an inclination towards south.  Hence to get the maximum quantity of solar energy we have to place our panel accordingly.

 

As you can see, be it summer or winter, the inclination is towards south.

The Tilt Angle is determined according to the Latitude of the City. For example, Cochin in Kerala has got tilt angle of 10-12 degree. On the other hand tilt angle of Delhi is around 28- 30 degree.

2) How does Solar Inverter work !

Solar Invert or Solar PCU (power conditioning unit) is the most critical electrical device of the Solar Power Generating System.  It is constantly evolving in terms of Technology, Durability, Heat & Power Loss minimization, Application areas, etc.

 

There many more than 100 different companies who manufacture Solar Inverters/PCU.  Out of these many of the companies sell their products in India also.  Most common names are, Luminous, Sukam, Microtek, Exide, ABB, SAM, UTL, Statcon, Waaree, Tata, Growat, etc.  The choice of Inverter Type and Brand must be dependent of the requirement on the power plant.

Common Types of Inverts/PCU based on its application area are On-Grid, Off-grid, Hybrid.  And then, there are Invert Types based on Technology, like MPPT, PWM, etc.  There are many inverters which come advanced in-built SPD (surge protection device), which is very imp to safe guard the inverter/PCU circuits from unwanted high current flow.

3) How does Solar Battery work !

Solar Batteries, like other Lead-Acid batteries work on the technology of electron flow.  The Energy or Electron Flow is the result of chemical reaction occurring within the battery between Electrolyte and Lead Acid Plates within the battery.


Solar Batteries are designed for use with solar systems.  It is built to last longer (3-5 yr warranty) and are rugged enough to be used in any weather condition.  Lead acid batteries are commonly used as an energy storage medium for solar battery banks.

Off grid solar power systems require battery banks to reserve electricity for times of frequent power cuts. The amount of solar energy a battery can store and release when needed is limited to the batteries ‘Capacity Rating’.  Batteries are rated according to their Voltage, Ampere Hours(AH) of storage and their ability to deliver the stored energy over a given period of time known as C rating i.e C5, C10, C20, C100.  Many Solar batteries are designed at C/10 rating, and are engineered for long life requirements of off-grid/hybrid, and for deep discharge performance.  Many batteries has the capacity to sustain partial state of discharge.

Deep cycle flooded lead acid batteries are commonly used for solar energy storage in stand-alone (independent) solar power systems.  There are different types of deep cycle flooded lead acid batteries used for different applications. Solar batteries are specially designed for optimum performance, very long life, high reliability, low self-discharge and quick charging ability.
Many solar batteries need water topping twice a year, due to the large electrolyte (acid) volume, while there are other batteries which needs water topping at-least 4 times.

 

Cities having frequent power cuts, or without access to grid power, often depend on off-grid renewable energy systems to fulfill their power requirements.